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Ruth Handler was an American inventor who created the iconic Barbie doll in 1959. The doll was named after Handler’s daughter Barbara. Handler introduced Barbie at the annual Toy Fair in New York on March 9, 1959. The new doll was very unlike the baby and the other dolls that were popular at the time. This was a doll with an adult body. The Ken doll was named after Handler’s son and was introduced two years after Barbie debuted. Handler was the co-founder of the company that manufactures a variety of popular toys.
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Chocolate town for chocolate workers
If you love chocolate, maybe you have eaten a bar of Cadbury’s Bournville chocolate. But Bournville isn’t just the name of an English chocolate bar. It’s the name of a village which was built especially for workers at the Cadbury’s chocolate factory.
George and Richard Cadbury took over the cocoa and chocolate business from their father in 1861. A few years later, they decided to move the factory out of the centre of Birmingham, a city in the middle of England, to a new location where they could expand. They chose an area close to the railways and canals so that they could receive milk deliveries easily and send the finished products to stores across the country.
Here, the air was much cleaner than in the city centre, and the Cadbury brothers thought it would be a much healthier place for their employees to work. They named the site Bournville after a local river called ‘The Bourn’. ‘Ville’, the French word for town, was used because at the time, people thought French chocolate was the highest quality. The new factory opened in 1879. Close to it, they built a village where the factory workers could live. By 1900, there were 313 houses on the site, and many more were built later.
The Cadbury family were religious and believed that it was right to help other people. They thought their workers deserved to live and work in good conditions. In the factory, workers were given a fair wage, a pension and access to medical treatment. The village was also designed to provide the best possible conditions for workers too. The houses, although traditional in style, had modern interiors, indoor bathrooms and large gardens. The village provided everything that workers needed including a shop, a school and a community centre where evening classes were held to train young members of the workforce.
Since the Cadbury family believed that their workers and their families should be fit and healthy, they added a park with hockey and football pitches, a running track, bowling green, fishing lake, and an outdoor swimming pool. A large clubhouse was built in the park so that players could change their clothes and relax after a game. Dances and dinners were also held here for the factory workers, who were never charged to use any of the sports facilities. However, because the Cadbury’s believed that alcohol was bad for health and society, no pubs were ever built in Bourneville!
The Cadbury brothers were among the first business owners to ensure that their workers had good standards of living. Soon, other British factory owners were copying their ideas by providing homes and communities for their workers designed with convenience and health in mind. Today, over 25,000 people live in Bournville village. There are several facilities there to help people with special needs, such as care homes for the elderly, a hostel for people with learning difficulties and affordable homes for first-time homeowners and single people. Over a hundred years since the first house in Bournville Village was built, the aims of its founders are still carried out.
- Bournville is … .
2. The new site for the chocolate factory was chosen because … .
3. Bournville takes its name from … .
4. The original houses in Bournville were … .
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Marilyn Monroe (was born) in 1926 in Los Angeles. Her real name was Norma Jeane Mortenson. When she was seven years old, her mother (had to) move into hospital because she was suffering from mental illness. After that, Norma lived in several foster homes. Turning sixteenth, Norma married James Dougherty, but their marriage didn’t last long. ( Although) Norma’s difficult childhood made her strong, it also made her very insecure.
During World War II, Marilyn worked in a factory. There, she (met) the photographer David Conover and he asked her to pose in his photographs. (Their) photos were very successful. By 1945, she (had appeared) on 33 magazine covers! But Marilyn’s dream was to be an actress. Because of her modelling success, she (was given) some film roles, and by 1953, she was one of (the most popular) Hollywood stars.
(However) , she was never lucky in love. In 1954, she married the baseball star Joe DiMaggio. They split up just nine months later. At the time, DiMaggio’s baseball career was ending. He felt jealous of Marilyn, (who) had become famous and (was admired) by (many) people. He spent most of his time (watching) television, which Marilyn found boring.
In 1956, Marilyn married the writer Arthur Miller. At first, they were happy together, but later, while both of them (were working) together on a film, they fell out and separated. Marilyn died from a drug overdose when she was 36 years old. Most people thought she committed suicide, but (nobody) will ever know for sure.
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- D. The Valley Activity Summer Camp. While we offer accommodation, many of our students choose the option of living out, with local families. Great exam preparation classes, taking into account your special needs. We also offer the best climbing walls in England and sports facilities include a pool and tennis courts. Excursions over the weekends are included in the booking fee.
- A. Language and Activity Cabin Camp for boys is a great way to enjoy the freedom of nature whilst improving your language skills. Accommodation is in cosy cabins. Daily activities include mountain biking, hiking across the local hills and swimming in our lake. Languages (English, French and German) and classes are held 3 days a week.
- C. Cambridge Activity College is in the English countryside. This is an activity/English centre where the emphasis is on exam preparation for students aged 12-18. After your 3-hour exam timetable, you choose between horse riding, cycling, walking or tennis. For over 16s there is a special ‘be free’ programme, allowing trips to London and or the seaside. Courses from 2-10 weeks.
1. Kate wants to improve his English over the summer to take her final exams. She wants to be near London. She loves rock climbing and swimming. She needs to improve her vocabulary and listening skills. She would prefer the option of living out and would like organised excursions.
2. Diego wants a summer camp that offers hiking and mountain biking. He wants to improve his English and German but he does not want lessons every day. He would like a camp where students sleep in cabins. He would like the camp to be just for boys.
3. Sofia wants to do lots of walking, horse riding or cycling, but she would also like to visit London and go shopping. She wants to take an English exam to get into a UK university. She would prefer the camp to be for older children. She wants to stay for a minimum of 8 weeks.